Matter : Objects that take up space and have mass are called matter. Everything around you is made up of matter. Ice cream is made up of matter. You are made of matter. Your puppy or kitten, a glass of milk or a balloon filled with air is called as Matter.

                        Everything you can see or touch, smell or taste, is made up of matter. Mass is the amount of matter in an object, and is often measured in grams. Mass is related to how much something weighs. Mass and weight are two different things. The unit for mass is a gram. You can usually think of the mass of a thing as its weight. The more mass it has, the more it will weigh.

Physical Properties :- Certain features of an object, which can be perceived with our sense organs, are called physical properties .You can feel matter, see matter, taste matter, hear matter, and smell matter.

Mass, color, shape, volume, and density are some of the physical properties of matter. Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume. Volume is the amount of space that an object occupies. Volume is measured in gallons, liters, or milliliters.

What matter looks like?

A table is a hard solid substance, occupying space and having mass.

Observe the color of the glass tumbler and the soft drink with the ice cubes in it.

Observe the different sizes of the kangaroos in the given picture.

What matter feels like?

A hot cup of milk A sharp knife A soft pair of shoes

We cannot see air but we can see how the air moves the balloons in the sky.

We feel the snow is cold and wet. Temperature and wetness are both physical properties of matter.

What Matter smells like?

A sweet smelling rose.



Other properties of matter :

A magnetic property which attracts iron.

Measurement of matter : Matter has weight and volume. The amount of space matter takes up is called the volume. Different devices like a measuring cup, measuring jar, graduate and pipette can be used to measure volumes.

All matter has mass. The amount of matter in an object is called as mass. In order to find out how much mass an object has, you have to use a pan balance.

Fruits and vegetables are measured using a scale. Even air has mass when you fill air into a balloon, you add to its mass. The balloon filled with air has more mass than the empty balloon. This shows that air has mass. You can even feel the mass of air rushing out of the balloon. You can’t see air, but it has mass. We use a teaspoon to measure salt, sugar or even a medicine. An electronic scale is used in the post office to measure the mass of letters.

Three Forms of Matter : Everything around you that takes up space is matter. The state of matter depends upon the packing and the internal energy of molecules. Properties describe matter. A table, a piece of chalk, the water inside a fish tank, and the air inside an “empty” bottle all have properties. Matter exists in three forms: solid, liquid, and gas. The “state” of the matter refers to the group of matter with the same properties. It means that objects can be grouped according to their properties.

Solids : The table is a solid. A solid has a certain size and shape. The table does not change size or shape. Other examples of solids are the chair, the computer, and the radio.

You can change the shape of solids. You can change the shape of table by sawing it into pieces or burning it.

Liquids : Water is a liquid. Water is liquid matter. It has a size or volume. Volume means it takes up space. However, water does not have a definite shape. It takes the shape of its container. Liquids can flow, be poured, and spilled. The liquid takes a shape of the floor and the floor is expansive limitless boundary (until it hits the wall). However, you cannot spill a table. You can drop it and it still has the same shape. Try to pour a glass of water in a cup; it assumes the shape of the cup. Try pouring the same glass of water into another beaker and observe its shape.

The shape of the above water changes as it falls. When it hits the stream, the banks help it to hold its shape.

Gases : The oxygen we breathe is a gas present in the air. We need oxygen to live. It is invisible. Gases do not possess a definite shape or a definite volume. It can take any shape. Gases have no color. Gases are all around you. Air is a mixture of many gases. You can feel air when the wind blows.

The air in your classroom is a gas. It takes the shape of your classroom. If you put the same amount of air into a bigger classroom, it would spread out to take up all the space in the room.

-Changing Matter

Changing its temperature can change matter from one form to another form. If you freeze water, which is in a liquid state, it changes into a solid state (ice). If you boil the liquid, you see the liquid escaping in the form of bubbles and changing into a gaseous state. These states of matter are only the physical properties. There is no change in its chemical composition. Ice and water vapor continue to be water in different forms or states.

Sometimes a liquid can be sitting there and its molecules will become a gas. That is called Evaporation. You might be wondering how that can happen when the temperature is low. It turns out that all liquids can evaporate at room temperature and pressure. Evaporation takes place when there are atoms or molecules escaping from the liquid and turning into a vapor.

Water is a good example for evaporation and melting. Water is transferred from the surface to the atmosphere through evaporation; the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas. Evaporation is the process whereby atoms or molecules in a liquid state (or solid state if the substance sublimes) gain sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state.

Water in the liquid state changes to water in a gaseous state. Water evaporates to turn into water vapor. Water can evaporate or disappear with the help of heat. Changes in temperature can increase or decrease the rate of evaporation. Evaporate means to disappear. Water can evaporate from soil. It evaporates off wet clothes hanging on a clothesline. Plants release water vapor into the air. We breathe out water vapor along with carbon dioxide.

Melting : When you drop an ice cube into any liquid, it begins to melt because the temperature of the liquid is higher than that of the ice cube. It is like putting a snowman on your front lawn in July. You need some energy to melt ice cube into a liquid. 

Atoms in a liquid have more energy than the atoms in a solid. The easiest energy available around is probably heat. Every substance has a certain temperature at which it melts. It is called as its melting point. When a solid reaches the temperature of its melting point, it changes to a liquid. For water the temperature has to be a little over zero degrees Celsius. For salt, sugar, or wood, the melting point would be higher than water.

-These funny explanations will clarify the concept of matter and changing states:

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